Odisha Swastha Seva Sangha

Treatment of Common Ailments

TREATMENT OF COMMON AILMENTS

              

              This section of the book presents various diseases with their definition, symptoms, causes and Acupressure treatment points. Here only the common diseases have been discussed but in reality Acupressure treats greater number of diseases than what has been explained. Here the Acupressure treatment plan of each disease has been classified into two parts i.e., Target points and Accessory points. The target points are the points which are directly related to the disease and the accessory points are indirectly connected to the disease. The points mentioned here in are in general and not necessarily that all the points will be found to be tender or you have to treat them all. One should remember that the Acupressure treatment plan of a disease is tailor made, that is, it is specifically designed for one particular patient and that plan may not be applicable to another patient having the same disease. Thus there is no universal formula as the treatment points may vary from patient to patient. But as said the points mentioned here are in general that has been planned by taking variable factors into account. Thus by putting pressure on these point in a particular disease will positively give results. While treating if you happen to find any other points to be tender, apart from the mentioned ones, then do put pressure on them as well. Please refer the Introduction chapter as far as “how to put pressure, probing and selection of points” and etc is concerned.

 

ACNE (Acne Vulgaris)

              A disorder of the skin caused by inflammation of the skin glands and hair follicles; specifically: a form found chiefly in adolescents and marked by pimples especially on the face.

Body Parts Involved: Skin.

Symptoms:Black heads (black spots the size of a pin head) Whiteheads (white spots similar to blackheads) Pustules (small pus filled lesions) Redness and inflammation around eruptions.

Causes: Oil glands in the skin become plugged for unknown reasons, but sex hormone changes during adolescence play a role. When oil backs up, it becomes infected by bacteria normally present in glands. Contrary to myth, acne is not caused by dirt or masturbation. Cleanliness can lessen it, but sexual activity has no effect on it.

Risk Increases With: Exposure to extremely hot or cold weather Stress Oily skin Endocrine disorders Use of certain drugs Family history of acne.

General Measures: If your skin is oily, cleanse it as follows: Gently massage face with mild face wash for 3 to 5 minutes. Don’t massage sorest places. Cleanse skin gently – rough scrubbing spreads infection; After cleansing use an astringent, such as alcohol, to remove oil; Use a fresh washcloth each day. Bacteria grow in damp, wet cloths. Wash hair with shampoo at least twice a week. Don’t let hair hang over the face – even in night. Hair spreads oil and bacteria. After vigorous exercise, wash sweat and oil off as soon as possible. Don’t squeeze, scratch, pick or rub the skin. Acne heals better without damage to the skin. Don’t rest your face on your hands while reading, studying or watching TV.

Acupressure (Acu.) Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 8, (13 & 14 for females), (15 for males), 16, 37, 23, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 3, 21, 26, 27, 29.

 

AMENORRHOEA, SECONDARY

Secondary amenorrhoea is absence, suppression or cessation of menstruation for at least 3 months in a woman who has previously menstruated. Females can be affected from the period of puberty to menopause.

Body Parts Involved: Endocrine system and reproductive system.

Symptoms: Absence of menstrual cycle for 3 or more months in a woman who has menstruated at least once.

Causes: ●Pregnancy ●Menopause ●Emotional stress ●Surgical removal of ovaries and uterus ●Disorder of endocrine system ●Diabetes mellitus ●Obesity.

Risk Increases With: ●Stress ●Poor nutrition ●Use of certain drugs.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 8, 13, 14, 16, 23, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 3, 9, 17, 29.

 

 

ANXIETY (Stress & Strain or Tension)

It’s an abnormal and overwhelming sense of apprehension and fear often marked by physiological signs (as sweating, tension, and increased pulse), by doubt concerning the reality and nature of the threat, and by self-doubt about one’s capacity to cope with it.

Body Parts Involved: Central nervous system and endocrine system.

Symptoms: ●Feeling that something undesirable or harmful is about to happen ●Rapid breathing and heartbeat ●Muscle tensions ●Dry mouth, swallowing difficulty ●Sweating ●Twitching and trembling ●Memory problems ●Nausea ●Weight loss ●Insomnia ●Anger and irritability ●Stiff neck ●Lack or loss of interest in social relationship ●Stubborn attitude without any flexibility or adaptability ●Shortness of breath ●Palpitations ●Abdominal cramps ●Headache ●Fatigue ●Poor concentration ●Sexual impotency.

Causes: ●Repetitive worrying thoughts ●Fear ●Apprehension ●Guilty feeling ●Poor bonding of relationship ●Demise of nearer one ●Ambitious and fear of failures ●Any health disorders ●Depression.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 8, 15, 16, 28, 39.
Associate Points: 1, 7, 23, 26, 29, 36, 37.

 

APPENDICITIS
It’s the inflammation of appendix – a small, tube that extends from the first part of the large intestine.

Body Parts Involved: Appendix.

Symptoms: ●Pain that originates close to the navel and migrates toward the right lower abdomen. Pain becomes persistent and well-localised. It worsens with moving, breathing or being touched ●Nausea and vomiting ●Constipation and inability to pass flatus ●Low fever ●Tenderness in the right abdomen ●In later stage abdomen swelling ●Increased TLC count.

Causes: Infection for the unknown reason, usually with bacteria from the intestinal tract. The appendix may become obstructed from contents moving through intestinal tract. When infected, it becomes swollen, inflamed and filled with pus.

-itis, a suffix meaning an ‘inflammation of a specific organ’: e.g. appendicitis, sinusitis, arthritis, gastritis, and etc

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 16, 20, 21, 23, 37.
Associate Points: 8, 29.

 

ASTHMA, BRONCHIAL
It’s a condition often of allergic origin that is marked by continuous or paroxysmal labored breathing accompanied by wheezing, by a sense of constriction in the chest, and often by attacks of coughing or gasping.

Body Parts Involved: Lungs; bronchi; bronchioles.

Symptoms: ●Chest tightness and shortness of breath ●wheezing upon breathing out ●Coughing especially at night with little sputum ●Rapid shallow breathing that is easier with sitting up ●Breathing difficulty – neck muscles tighten ●Enlarged chest. Severe Late Symptoms: – ●Bluish skin ●Exhaustion ●Inability to speak ●Mental changes, including restlessness or confusion.

Causes: Spasm of air passages (bronchi and bronchioles), followed by swelling of the passages and thickening of lung secretions (sputum). This decreases or closes off air to the lungs. These changes are caused by: ●Allergens, such as pollen, dust, animal dander, soil and some foods ●Lung infection such as bronchitis ●Air irritants, such as smoke and odors ●Exercise ●Stress ●Smoking.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 5, 16, 28, 30, 37.
Associate Points: 6, 7, 8, 26, 34, 36, 39.

 

BACK PAIN, LOW (Lumbar Spondylosis)
It’s a pain in the back, below the waist, that may be sudden and sharp or persistent and dull.

Body Parts Involved: Lumbar and sacrum vertebrae; Ligament and muscles; Facet joints of vertebrae; Intervertebral discs.

Symptoms: ●Sharp pain localized to a small area of the back ●Pain in the buttocks ●Pain aggravates with lifting something ●Stiffness at back and pain while bending forward ●Pain in the back that radiated to the buttock and to the legs (particularly behind the knees) ●Sciatic pain ●Morning stiffness ●Restlessness ●Less water intake may also contribute in aggravating the symptoms.

Causes: Low back pain may appear all of a sudden (acute) or develop gradually over a period of time (chronic). ●Physical injury ●Lifting of heavy weight objects ●Muscle, tendon or ligament strain ●Poor posture ●Pregnancy ●Prolapsed intervertebral disc (PID) ●Obesity ●Joints disorder ●Osteoarthritis ●Rheumatoid arthritis ●Kidney stone.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 9, 16, 17, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 7, 8, 23, 24, 26, 29, 39.

 

CEREBRAL PALSY (CP)
It is a group of muscular and nervous disorders that begins in infancy and causes varying degrees of disability. CP is not inherited.

Body Parts Involved: Central nervous system; muscular system.

Symptoms: Number of severity of the following symptoms vary widely among children with CP: ●Early sucking difficulty with the breasts or bottle ●Lack of normal muscle tone (early) ●Slow development (walking, talking) ●Unusual body posture ●Unstable neck ●Stiffness and muscle spasms ●Purposeless body movements ●Poor coordination or balance ●Crossed eyes ●Deafness ●Drooling ●Convulsions ●Various degree of mental retardation ●Crossed legs.

Causes: ●Birth injury, including prolonged oxygen deprivation ●Defects in brain and spinal column Use of drugs during pregnancy that damage fetus ●Infections in mother during pregnancy ●Rh incompatibility or bile blockage in the new born ●Meningitis or encephalitis during infancy or childhood.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 17, 24, 28, 39.
Associate Points: 3, 23, 26, 29, 33, 37.

 

CERVICAL SPONDYLOSIS (Neck Pain)
It’s a condition in which degenerative changes are noticed in the bones and cartilages of neck (cervical vertebrae) that place pressure on nerves and muscles to the shoulders, arms and other places.

Body Parts Involved: ●7 bones of the neck ●Discs between the bones ●Blood vessels to the hand ●Bladder and legs (in advanced stages).

Symptoms: Any of the following: ●Restricted neck movement that may be painful ●Pain in the back of the head ●Pain in the neck radiating to the shoulder blades, top of the shoulders, upper arms, hands or back of the hand ●Crunching sounds with movement of the neck or back of the head ●Numbness and tingling in the arms, hands and fingers; some loss of feeling in the hands ●Muscle weakness and deterioration ●Neck stiffness ●Headache ●Sometimes, if the head is moved too quickly, the deformities in the upper spine may suddenly compress blood vessels that carry blood to the brain, resulting in dizziness or vertigo, unsteadiness, double vision ●With advanced disease, loss of bladder control and leg weakness.

Causes: ●Arthritis (inflammation of joints) ●Sedentary job ●Accident and injury ●Postural defects ●Sudden jerks on arms ●Osteoarthritis (wear and tear on joints that accompanies aging) ●Outgrowths of bone that sometimes occur with aging ●Obesity ●Long driving.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 7, 8, 9, 16, 24, 28, 37, 39.
Associate Points: 5, 15, 27, 29.

 

COLITIS (Mucus Colitis / Irritable Bowel Syndrome)
It is an irritative and inflammatory disorder of the colon which may or may not be characterized by ulceration and episodes of bloody diarrhoea.

Symptoms: The following symptoms usually develop in the early adult life. Episodes may last for days, weeks or months ●Cramp like pain in the middle or on one side of the lower abdomen Pain is usually relieved with bowel movements ●Nausea ●Abdominal distention and gas ●Occasional appetite loss that may lead to weight loss ●Diarrhoea or constipation usually alternating ●Mucus mixed faeces ●Fatigue ●Depression ●Anxiety ●Backache.

Causes: Stress and emotional conflict resulting in anxiety or depression. Situations that often precede an attack include: obsessive worry about everyday problems; marital lesion; fear of loss of a beloved person or object; death of loved one.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 10, 16, 19, 20, 21, 23, 29, 37.
Associate Points: 8, 25, 27, 28.

 

COMMON COLD
It is a contagious viral infection of the upper-respiratory passages.

Body Parts Involved: Nose; throat; sinuses; ears; eustachian tube; trachea; larynx; bronchial tubes.

Symptoms: ●Runny or stuffy nose. Nasal discharge is watery at first then becomes thick and greenish yellow ●Sore throat ●Hoarseness of voice ●Cough that produces little or no sputum ●Low fever ●Fatigue ●Watering of eyes ●Loss of appetite ●Neck and body ache ●Headache.

Causes: There are around 200 viruses that can cause common cold. Virus particles spread through the air or from person-to-person contact, especially hand-shacking, blowing of nose, sneezing and etc.

Risk Increases With: ●Stress ●Fatigue or overwork ●Poor nutrition ●Smoking ●Exposure to cold, wet weather ●Crowded or insanitary living conditions.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 6, 16, 28, 34, 37, 39.
Associate Points: 7, 8, 23, 27, 30, 31, 33.

 

CONSTIPATION
Difficulty or uncomfortable bowel movements is generally called as constipation.

Symptoms: People vary widely in bowel activity. Any of the following may be a sign of constipation: ●Infrequent bowel movements, sometimes accompanied by abdominal swelling ●Hard and sticky faeces ●Staining during bowel movements ●Pain or bleeding with bowel movements ●Sensation of continuing fullness after a bowel movement ●Backache ●Leg pain ●Debility of legs ●Loss of appetite ●Indigestion ●Headache.

Causes: Inadequate fluid intake ●Sedentary job and lack of physical exercises ●Insufficient fibre in the diet. Fibre adds bulk, holds water and facilitates easy passage of faeces ●Hypothyroidism ●Hyperglycaemia ●Depression ●Intake of oily and fatty animal foods.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 8, 10, 19, 20, 23, 29.
Associate Points: 3, 16, 27, 25, 28, 37.

 

DIABETES MELLITUS
It’s a chronic disease of metabolism characterized by the body’s inability to produce enough insulin to process carbohydrate, fat and protein efficiently.

Body Parts Involved: ●Islet cells of pancreas that produce insulin ●All body cells that need insulin to convert food into chemicals that the body can use.

Types of Diabetes: Mainly there are two types of diabetes – Type – I (IDDM) & Type – II (NIDDM).

Type – I diabetes also known as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or Juvenile Onset Diabetes (JOD) usually starts during the early age. In this case there is an inability to metabolize carbohydrate caused by absence or acute deficiency of insulin. The ‘B’ cells atrophy and disappear in this type of diabetes, leaving behind mainly ‘A’ cells (that produces the other Insulin antagonistic hormone glucagon). Since ‘B’ cells are makers of insulin, insulin-dependent diabetics secrete little or no insulin. They must be injected with insulin to survive, hence known as “insulin dependent diabetes mellitus”.

Type – II diabetes also called as Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus or Maturity-Onset Diabetes (MOD) usually starts in the middle or old age. The ‘B’ cells of this diabetes at first show little or no atrophy. Consequently, non-insulin dependent diabetes secretes almost normal amounts of insulin — or above normal amounts! But the cell does not respond to the effect of insulin. The cells are insulin-resistant. In many cases, this resistance results from a decreased number of insulin receptors in the cell membranes of the liver and muscles. This type of diabetes could control the blood glucose level by doing exercise and controlling diet. As the name suggest they need not need to have insulin injected to control the glucose level. Usually they are administered different drugs to control the glucose level.

Symptoms: ●Dehydration of tissues since glucose excretion with urine involves a loss of liquid (polyuria/excess urination). ●Dehydration entails an increase thirst (polydipsia). Other symptoms include ●Excess appetite ●Weight loss ●Fatigue ●Lethargic ●Weakness ●Dryness of mouth ●Itching around genitals ●Increased susceptibility to infections ●Itching around genitals ●Increased susceptibility to infections ●Fatigue ●Deterioration of vision (advanced stage) ●Kidney disease (advanced stage).

Causes: ●The pancreas may not produce any or enough insulin because its insulin-producing Beta (B) cells have been affected by disease or the pancreas may have been surgically removed ●The efficiency of the body’s insulin may have been reduced by certain drugs or other health disorders ●Tissue cells may be unable to respond to insulin as the cell membrane receptor may have become insulin resistant ●In-correct dietary habits ●Sedentary job / inadequate physical activity ●Effects of anti-insulin hormones ●Stress and strain ●Obesity ●Hereditary.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 8, 15, 16, 23, 25, 26, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 3, 7, 9, 17, 18, 19, 24, 29, 33, 35, 36, 39.

 

DUODENAL ULCER (Duodenal Peptic Ulcer)
Duodenal ulcer (sore) occurs in the duodenum which causes symptoms similar to those of a stomach ulcer.

Body Parts Involved: Duodenum (first 25 cm of small intestine beyond stomach).

Symptoms: ●Pain that has the following characteristics: •A burning, boring or gnawing feeling that lasts 30 minutes to 3 hours; •The pain is often interpreted as chest burn, indigestion or hunger; •Pain usually in the upper abdomen, but occasionally below the breastbone; •Pain occurs in some persons immediately after eating and in others, it may not occur until hours later. It frequently awakens one at night; •Pain comes and goes. Weeks of intermittent pain may alternate with short pain-free periods; •Pain may be relieved by drinking milk, eating, resting or taking antacids ●Appetite and weight loss ●Recurrent vomiting ●Blood in the stool ●Anaemia.

Causes: ●An ulcer can develop wherever stomach acid comes in contact with the gastrointestinal lining – especially the lower end of the oesophagus, stomach and the duodenum ●Helicobacter pylori bacterium can lead to duodenal peptic ulcer as it damages the inner mucus layer of the duodenum ●Loss of acid-resistant capacity of the inner lining of the stomach ●An ulcer is most likely to develop in an anxious, tense or worried person. A person with an ulcer usually has an overactive stomach that manufactures too much hydrochloric acid ●Stress ●Improper diet, irregular mealtimes and skipped meals ●Smoking ●Excess alcohol consumption ●Use of certain drugs.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 16, 19, 22, 23, 27, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 8, 15, 25, 26, 29.

 

DYSENTERY, AMEOEBIC
Dysentery is a disease characterized by severe diarrhoea with passage of mucus and blood and usually caused by infection. Amoebic dysentery is an acute human intestinal amebiasis caused by an amoeba (Entamoeba histolytica) and marked by dysentery, gripes, and erosion of the intestinal wall.

Body Parts Involved: Intestinal tract, especially the colon.

Symptoms: ●Fever ●Intermittent diarrhoea with bad-smelling stools. Diarrhoea is often preceded by constipation in early stages ●Gas and abdominal distention ●Abdominal cramps ●Mucus and blood in stool ●Fatigue ●Muscle ache ●Tenderness of lower abdomen.

Causes: A microscopic parasite that is spread by flies, cockroaches and direct contact with the hands or food contaminated with faeces. The most common sources of infection are: ●Food handler’s ●Faulty hotel or factory plumbing ● Raw vegetables or fruit fertilized with human faeces or washed in polluted water ●Contaminated water ●Unsanitary toilets ●Usage of toilets with bare foot.

How to Prevent: ●Wash your hands frequently – always before eating ●if you are in an area where food or water may be contaminated, the following measures are necessary: Boil drinking water for 5 minutes; don’t eat unpeeled fruit or vegetables.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 16, 19, 20, 23, 28, 29, 37.
Associate Points: 8, 10, 15, 22, 25, 26, 27, 29.

 

DYSMENORRHOEA (Menstrual Cramps)
A severe and painful cramp during menstruation is termed as dysmenorrhoea. Primary dysmenorrhoea means pain has recurred regularly since periods began. Secondary means pain began years after periods started. Women with dysmenorrhoea are generally fertile – cramps indicate that ovulation occurred 12 to 14 days earlier. Dysmenorrhoea usually is less severe after woman has a baby.

Body Parts Involved: Female reproductive system, especially the uterus.

Symptoms: ●Cramping and sometimes sharp pains in the lower abdomen, lower back and thighs ●Nausea and vomiting (sometimes) ●Sweating ●Lack of energy ●Irritability.

Causes: ●Hormonal imbalance ●Strong or prolonged contractions of the muscular wall of the uterus. These may be caused by concentration of prostaglandins (hormones manufactured by the body) ●Dilation of the cervix to allow passage of blood clots from the uterus to the vagina ●Pelvic infection ●Endometriosis, especially if dysmenorrhoea begins after age 20 ●Poor posture ●Under developed uterus ●Stress.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 23, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 3, 4, 9, 17, 26, 29, 39.
 

EPILEPSY
It’s a disorder of brain function characterized by sudden seizures, brief attacks of inappropriate behavior, and change in one’s state of consciousness or bizarre movements. Seizures – also called fits or convulsions – are a symptom, not a disease.

Body Parts Involved: Brain.

Symptoms: There are several forms of epilepsy (listed herein), each with its own characteristics:
●Petit Mal Epilepsy – which mostly affects children. The person stops activity and stares blankly around for a minute or so – unaware of what is happening.

Grand Mal Epilepsy – which affects all ages. The person loses consciousness, stiffens, then twitches and jerks uncontrollably. He or she may lose bladder control. The seizure lasts several minutes, and is often followed by deep sleep or mental confusion. Prior to the seizure, the person may have warning signals: a tense feeling; visual disturbances; smelling of bad odour; or hearing strange noises.

Focal Epilepsy – in which a small part of the body begins twitching uncontrollably. The twitching spreads until it may involve the whole body. The person does not lose consciousness.

●Temporal-lobe Epilepsy – in which the person suddenly behaves out of character or inappropriately, such as: becoming suddenly violent or angry; laughing for no reason; or making agitated or bizarre body movements, including odd chewing movements.

Causes: ●Brain damage at birth ●Drug or alcohol abuse ●Severe head injury ●Brain infection ●Brain tumour ●Hereditary (not often).

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 15, 16, 24, 26, 28, 39.
Associate Points:  7, 9, 17, 23, 25, 29, 37.

Emergency Point: GV 26

GV 26 is an Acupressure meridian point located in the depression that is found between the nose and upper lips. This point when pressed or massaged gently, with the tip of the thumb, brings the patient back to conscious within few seconds.

 

FACIAL PARALYSIS
It’s a paralysis on one side of the face affecting eyes, muscles, lips and tongue of that part.

Body Parts Involved: 7th cranial nerve and facial muscles supplied by that nerve.

Symptoms: ●A sudden paralysis on one side of the face, including muscles of the eyelid ●Inability to close the eyelid on the affected side ●Pain behind the ear on the affected side ● Drooping of the corner of the mouth, sometimes associated with drooling ●Flat, expressionless features on one side of the face ●Distorted smiles and frowns ●Changes in taste, salivation ●Watering of eyes.

Causes: Swelling of the facial nerve. The swelling may be caused by: ●virus ●autoimmune disease; ●decrease in blood flow and pressure on the facial nerve as it passes through the temporal bone of the skull ●exposure to cold wind.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 1, 2, 5, 8, 16, 28, 34, 39.
Associate Points: 7, 15, 26, 37.

 

FAINTING
Fainting is a temporary loss of consciousness due to a decrease in the supply of blood to the brain.

Body Parts Involved: All (e.g.: Brain, heart, blood vessels and others)

Symptoms: Before losing consciousness: ●the victim may complain of light-headedness ●blurring of vision and nausea ●skin may be pale and clammy to touch ●Rapid heartbeat ●General weakness then falling.

Causes: ●Stuffy atmosphere ●Standing up suddenly ●Standing for a long time in one position ●An obstruction to the neck arteries on moving the head suddenly ●By an emotional reaction to shock ●Poor output from the heart ●Arrhythmia (disturbance of heart beat) ●Disease of the heart valves ●Prolonged straining, such as from severe coughing or attempted bowel movements when constipated ●Epilepsy ●Low blood sugar ●Anaemia.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 1, 8, 16, 26, 28, 32, 39.
Associate Points: 2, 5, 15, 25.

Emergency Point: GV 26

GV 26 is an Acupressure meridian point located in the depression that is found between the nose and upper lips. This point when pressed or massaged gently, with the tip of the thumb, brings the patient back to conscious within few seconds.

 

GASTRITIS
Gastritis is the irritation, inflammation, erosion (advanced stage) or infection of gastric glands – the stomach inner mucus lining.

Body Parts Involved: Stomach.

Symptoms: ●Mild nausea and diarrhoea ●Vomiting (occasionally) ●Abdominal pain and cramps ●Appetite loss ●Fever ●Weakness ●Swollen abdomen ●Sharp, dull or annoying pain in the chest ●Acid taste in the mouth ●Belching or gas ●Chest burn ●Iron deficiency anemia (occasionally) ●Mild epigastric (lying upon or over the stomach) tenderness to palpation ●Blood in stool and will appear black (advanced stage).

Causes: Excess stomach acid caused by heavy drinking, smoking or overeating (especially foods you don’t digest easily) ●Food allergy ●Irregular and improper dietary habits ●Excess fasting ●Stress ●Helicobacter pylori bacterium can lead to chronic gastritis as it damages the inner mucus layer of the stomach and allows the gastric juice contained acid to attack the lining ●Use of certain drugs ●Unknown (sometimes).

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 16, 19, 23, 27, 28, 29, 37.
Associate Points: 8, 15, 20, 22, 25, 26.

 

GASTRIC ULCER: See stomach ulcer.

 

GOUT
Gout is a metabolic disorder in which recurrent attacks of joint inflammation is caused by deposits of uric acid crystals in the joints.

Body Parts Involved: Joints, especially the base of the big toe. Gout may also involve the elbow, knee, hand foot, ankle, arm or shoulder.

Symptoms: ●Unbearable pain in the inflamed joint, usually at the base of the big toe ●Involved joints are red, hot, swollen, and very tender. Skin over the joint is red and shiny ●Fever (sometimes) ●In long-standing gout, deposits of uric acid crystals may collects in the earlobes and the soft tissues of the hands, forming small lumps called tophi.

Causes: ●A high level of uric acid in the blood due to increased production of uric acid or decreased eliminations of uric acid by the kidneys (uric acid is a waste product of the breakdown of cells and proteins) ●Excess intake of purine foods (especially animal proteins) ●Use of diuretics drugs ●Use of some antibiotics.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 8, 9, 16, 19, 23, 26, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 4, 17, 25, 29, 39.

 

HAEMORRHOIDS (Piles)
Dilated (varicose) veins of the rectum or anus.

Body Parts Involved: Veins under the rectal or anal membrane.

Symptoms: ●Rectal bleeding ●Pain, itching or mucus discharge after bowel movements ●A lump that can be felt in the anus ●A sensation that the rectum has not emptied completely after a bowel movement.

Causes: ●Repeated pressure in the anal or rectal veins – usually caused by straining during bowel movements ●Abdominal or rectal tumours ●Constipation ●Diet that lacks fibre ●Obesity.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 10, 16, 20, 37.
Associate Points: 8, 19, 23, 25, 28, 29.

 

HEADACHE
Simple headache are of 3 types: ●Pain in the muscle strain in the scalp, neck and face ●Pain from constricted blood vessels in the head that cause pressure on blood-vessel walls ●Pain from dilated blood vessels in the brain.

Body Parts Involves: Sensory nerves in the skin, scalp, blood vessels and muscles of the head.

Symptoms: Any of the following: ●Moderate pain in the front or back of the head accompanied by tight muscles in the neck or scalp ●Constant pain over the temples ●Throbbing pain all over the head.

Causes: ●Tension, producing strain on muscles of the neck, scalp, face and jaw ●Sleep disturbances ●Physically exhausting work ●Anxiety or depression ●Eye strain, including sun glare ●Due to certain drugs and alcohol ●Low blood sugar (Hypoglycaemia) ●Hormone changes during the menstrual cycle ●Allergic reaction ●Gastritis ●Fasting ●High blood pressure ●Common cold ●Sinusitis.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 1, 2, 7, 8, 15, 16, 23, 27, 39.
Associate Points: 28, 33, 34, 35, 36.

 

HEARTBURN
Heartburn is a discomfort in the upper digestive tract – oesophagus. Heartburn or gastric reflux or chest burn is a symptom and not a disease which has nothing to with chest or heart. It is caused by backflow of gastric acid from the stomach into the oesophagus. The muscles that close off the upper stomach become lax, allowing stomach juices to enter the oesophagus and irritate its non-acidic resistant lining.

Body parts involved: Stomach and lower oesophagus (food pipe).

Symptoms: The following symptoms are worse at night: ●Belching or slight regurgitation of stomach contents into the mouth, producing an acid taste ●Sensation of burning in the middle of the chest ●Heavy and uncomfortable sensation in the chest ●Swallowing difficulty ●Mild abdominal pain ●Vomiting (rarely).

Causes: ●Hiatus hernia ●Ulcers of the oesophagus ●Irritation of the lower oesophagus caused by stomach acid spilling into the oesophagus ●Hyperacidity ●Gastritis ●Doing physical works or bending forward immediately after intakes of heavy foods ●Pregnancy (temporary period).

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 16, 19, 27, 28, 29, 37.
Associate Points: 6, 8, 10, 15, 23, 25.

HEARTBEAT, RAPID (Palpitation)
Heartbeat that is much more rapid than usual and is not caused by overexertion. Normally one is not aware of the heartbeats but in palpitation one can be very much feel and be aware of the excess heartbeats. Normal heartbeat ranges are 70 to 80 per minute in adults and 80 to 110 per minute in children. A person with non heart disease may exercise and raise the heartbeat to 160 or more. This is normal and is not a medical problem.

Body Parts Involved: Heart muscles; electrical system of the heart.

Symptoms: ●Heart pounding or palpitations. The pulse at wrist or neck will be 100 to 180 beats per minute, which is much faster than normal ●Faintness or feeling of impending death ●Increased urination ●Chest pain ●Involuntary cough ●Breathlessness.

Causes: ●Heart disease ●Hyperthyroidism ●Stress ●Smoking ●Coronary artery disease.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 5, 8, 15, 16, 28, 36.
Associate Points: 23, 25, 26, 37, 39.

 

HEEL PAIN:
It’s a pain in the heel that makes one uncomfortable while walking or standing.

Body Parts Involved: Heel bones, Achilles tendon, plantar fascia (a ligament that extends from the heel bone across the sole of the foot).

Symptoms: ●Tenderness in the heel particularly after a period of rest ●Calf muscles cramp ●Inability to walk immediately after a period of rest ●Inability to stand for a long duration.

Causes: Chronic waist pain ●Lumbar spondylosis ●Thyroid disorders ●Plantar fasciitis (inflammation of fascia which becomes calcified to form a visible spur) ●Tendinitis ●Injury ●Sciatica ●Fracture ●Bursitis ●Imbalance in blood calcium level.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 9, (11 to 15 & 24 in foot), 16, 17.
Associate Points: 28, 37, 39.

 

HICCUP:
Hiccup is the result of repeated, involuntary spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm. Hiccups are a symptom – not a disease.

Body Parts Involved: ●Diaphragm (big muscle which separates the chest from the stomach) ●Phrenic nerve (nerve that connects the diaphragm to the brain).

Symptoms: A sharp, quick sound from the mouth by a spasm of the diaphragm. The spasm closes muscles in the back of the throat during inhalation.

Causes: Irritation of nerves from the brain that control breathing muscles, especially the diaphragm. The prolonged recurrent hiccup may be caused by: ●Swallowing hot or irritating substances ●Water imbalance in the body ●Low level of carbon dioxide in the blood ●Diseases of pleura (thin membrane layers that cover the lung) ●Pneumonia ●Uraemia ●Alcoholism ●Disorder of stomach, oesophagus, bowel or pancreas ●Bladder irritation ●Emotional causes.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 5, 26, 28.
Associate Points: 27, 29, 30, 39.

 

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE (Hypertension):
It is an increase in the force against arteries (blood vessels) as blood circulates through them. Hypertension  sometimes is called “The silent killer” because it often has no symptoms in the early stages.

Body Parts Involved: Heart, blood vessels, brain, kidney and eyes (advanced stage).

Symptoms: Usually no symptoms unless disease is severe. Following are symptoms of a hypertensive crisis: ●Headache ●Drowsiness ●Confusion ●Numbness and tingling in the hands and feet ● Spasm in the back of the neck ●Mental irritation ●Shortness of breath ●Problem in hearing ●Coughing blood (advanced stage).

Causes: ●Chronic kidney disease ●Severe narrowing of the aorta (major artery of the heart) ●Hardening of arteries ●Obesity ●Smoking ●Stress ●Diet that is high in salt or saturated fat ●Sedentary lifestyle ●Family history of hypertension ●Use of contraceptive pills.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 5, 8, 15, 16, 23, 26, 28, 36.
Associate Points: 3, 7, 25, 37.

 

HPERTHYROIDISM:
It is the over activity of the thyroid, an endocrine gland that regulates all body functions.

Body Parts Involved: Thyroid gland and most other body organs, especially the endocrine system.

Symptoms: ●Hyperactivity ●Feeling warm or hot all the time ●Palpitations ●Heat intolerance ●Excessive sweating ●Nervousness ●Irritability ●Insomnia ●Breathlessness ●Increased bowel movements ●Scanty menstrual periods or their absence ●Fatigue ●Irregular and fast heart beat ●Trembling hands ●Excessive appetite ●Weight loss despite overeating ●Weakness ●Warm and moist skin ●Hair loss ●Staring gaze ●Itching skin ●Protruding eyes ●Tremors ●Goitre (sometimes).

Causes: When the thyroid gets over stimulated, the gland produces high quantities of the hormones, which the pituitary fails to control. All patients with Hyperthyroidism may not have the same cause, but the majority has an unnatural stimulus by a TSH-like substance, which is an antibody against the TSH receptor on the Thyroid gland or in a part of it.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 3, 8, 16, 28.
Associate Points: 7, 9, 11 to 15, 17, 23, 25, 26, 37, 39.

 

HYPOTHYROIDISM:
It is the under activity of the thyroid, an endocrine gland that regulates all body functions.

Body Parts Involved: Thyroid gland.

Symptoms: The nature and severity of the symptoms of Thyroid disorders vary from person to person. The symptoms of hypothyroidism are mainly dependent on the amount of decrease in thyroid hormones and the duration of time that the decrease in thyroid has been present. The symptoms may include a few or many of the following: ●Fatigue or muscles swelling or cramps ●Numbness and tingling of the hands and feet ●Loss of equilibrium ●Decrease appetite ●Weight gain despite less eating ●Dry skin and cold intolerance ●Yellow skin ●Coarseness or loss of hair ●Depression ●Low heart rate ●Goiter ●Constipation ●Memory and mental impairment ●Decreased concentration ●Decrease sex drive ●Infertility or miscarriages ●Irregular or heavy menstruation ●Hoarseness of voice ●Fluid retention especially around the eyes ●Skeletal muscles pain ●Joints pain.

Causes: The most common cause of Hypothyroidism is known to be chronic autoimmune Thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis), a condition characterized by inflammation and damage to the Thyroid tissue. The gland partly or completely fails to synthesize the required quantities of Thyroid hormones. Other causes of Hypothyroidism called causes include: ●Surgical removal of thyroid gland either for Hyperthyroidism or Thyroid cancer ●External radiation for certain cancers. ●A deficiency in dietary iodine consumption ●Genetic Thyroid absence or failure or defect ●Primary idiopathic.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 3, 8, 16, 28.
Associate Points: 6, 7, 9, 11 to 15, 17, 23, 25, 26, 37, 39.

INDIGESTION (Dyspepsia)
Indigestion is noticed with vague chest or abdominal discomfort – with no apparent organic cause – that occurs during or soon after eating or drinking.

Body Parts Involved: Stomach; oesophagus; small intestine.

Symptoms: ●Mild nausea ●Chest burn ●Upper abdominal pain ●Gas or belching ●Bloated or feeling of fullness ●Acid taste.

Causes: Symptoms seem related to eating, drinking or swallowing air while talking or chewing gum. They occur most often with: ●Emotional upset while eating ●Excessive smoking ●Constipation ●Eating improperly cooked food ●Eating food with high fat content ●Poor digestion of gas-forming foods such as beans, cucumbers, cully flowers, cabbage, and onions ●Food allergy ●Excessive alcohol drinking ●Lack of physical activity ●Stress ●Smoking ●Use of certain drugs.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 8, 19, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29.
Associate Points: 10, 15, 16, 22, 37.

 

INSOMNIA
It is a sleep disturbance – difficulty either falling asleep or remaining asleep.

Body Parts Involved: All body cells, especially the central nervous system.

Symptoms: ●Restlessness when trying to sleep ●Brief sleep followed by wakefulness ●Normal sleep until very early morning (3am to 4am) then wakefulness (often with frightening thoughts) ●Periods of sleeplessness, alternating with periods of excessive sleep or sleepiness at inconvenient times.

Causes: Depression. This is usually characterized by early-morning wakefulness ●Over activity of the thyroid gland ●Anxiety caused by stress ●Worrying about trivial things ●Over reactive and interference in others activity ●Lack of social adaptability and flexibility ●Demise of nearer one ●Fear ●Lack of physical activity ●Noisy environment ●Heart or lung conditions that cause shortness of breath ●Urinary or gastrointestinal problems ●Consumption of stimulants, such as coffee, tea or cola drinks ●Erratic work hours ●New environment or location ●Jet lag after travel ●Alcoholism ●Sexual problems, such as impotency.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 1, 8, 15, 16, 26, 28, 39.
Associate Points: 7, 23, 26.

 

KNEE PAIN (Osteoarthritis of Knee)
Knee joint is the largest and most affected of the joints of the body. Being a very complex joint it is susceptible to various injuries, disorders and arthritis. Osteoarthritis is degenerative disease that appears with aging or even before that due to variable causes.

Body Parts Involved: Knee joint, bones and cartilages, ligaments, muscles, bursae, synovial membrane, patella (knee cap).

Symptoms: ●Deep ache in the centre of the joint ●Stiffness, swelling and pain at the joint ●Limited flexibility ●Tenderness at joints ●X-ray may show a change in shape and a reduction in the thickness of cartilage in the joint ●The pain may be constant and severe enough to interfere with daily routine of life ●Inability to squat ●Cracking sounds with joint movement (crepitation) ●Wasting of muscles around the joints (especially quadriceps muscles at the thigh).

Causes: ●Aging ●Autoimmune disorder ●Rheumatoid arthritis ●Injury ●Tear of ligament ●Synovitis ●Bursitis ●Obesity ●Poor posture ●Persons with occupations that stress joints, such as dancers, football players’ ●Lack of exercise.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 9, (11 to 15 & 24 in foot) 16, 17, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 8, 26.

 

LARYNGITIS:
It is minor inflammation of the larynx (voice box) and surrounding tissues, causing temporary hoarseness of voice.

Body Parts Involved: Larynx (voice box); the upper part of the neck, behind the Adam’s apple.

Symptoms: ●Hoarseness or loss of voice ●Sore throat; tickling in the back of the throat ●Sensation of a lump in the throat ●Slight fever (sometimes) ●Swallowing difficulty.

Causes: Inflammation of the vocal cords and surrounding area caused by: ●Viruses ●Bacteria ●Allergies ●Excessive use of the voice ●Electrolyte-balance disturbances, especially low potassium, that cause muscle weakness ●Tumours (rare).

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 6, 7, 16, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 8, 23, 34, 39.

 

LOW BLOOD PRESSURE
Low blood pressure also known as hypotension is lower than normal blood pressure due to a variety of causes.

Body Parts Involved: Heart, blood vessels.

Symptoms: ●Fatigue ●General weakness ●Lightheadedness and fainting ●Blurring of vision ●Nausea ●Palpitation.

Causes: ●Dehydration following loss of large amounts of fluid or salts from the body ●Defects in hearts pumping efficiency ●Excess dilation of blood vessels which may be a result of an infection in the bloodstream ●Postural hypotension – which may be caused by disorders in which nerve supply to the blood vessels is damaged, such as diabetic neuropathy or peripheral neuropathies ●Use of certain drugs.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 1, 8, 16, 26, 28, 32, 39.
Associate Points: 2, 5, 15, 25.

 

LUMBAR SPONDYLOSIS: See back pain, low.

 

MENOPAUSE
It is the permanent cessation of menstruation. This occurs as early as age 35 or as late as age 55.

Body Parts Involved: Female reproductive system, with secondary effects in other body parts.

Symptoms: ●Physical changes (directly associated with decreased blood levels of female hormones) ●Menstrual irregularities ●Hot flashes or flushes – sensation of heat spreading from the waist or chest toward the neck, face and upper arms ●Headaches ●Dizziness ●Rapid or irregular heartbeat ●Vaginal itching, burning or discomfort during intercourse, beginning a few years after menopause ●Bloating in the upper arm ●Bladder irritability ●Breast tenderness ●Mood changes ●Pronounced tension or anxiety ●Sleeping difficulty ●Depression ●Fatigue ●Joints pain ●Backache ●Skeletal muscle aches.

Causes: ●A normal decline in ovary function, resulting in decreased levels of the female hormones, oestrogen and progesterone ●Surgical removal of both ovaries.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 23, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 3, 4, 9, 17, 26, 29, 39.

 

MENSTRUATION, IRREGULAR
It is disorder of a menstrual cycle that has wide variations in the length of time between periods. After puberty, most women develop a regular menstrual cycle with relatively consistent length of time between periods, but in some women menstrual periods may remain irregular.

Body Parts Involved: Uterus, Ovaries, Pituitary, and Thyroid gland.

Symptoms: ●Back pain ●Changes in the mood ●Problems in ovulation ●Difficulty in getting pregnant ●Irritation ●Anxiety.

Causes: ●Hormonal imbalance ●Excessive exercise or weight loss ●Problems in ovaries or uterus ●Unsuspected pregnancy ●Stress.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 23, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 3, 4, 9, 17, 26, 29, 39.

 

MIGRAINE
It is an intense, incapacitating one side headache, accompanied by other symptoms that occur repeatedly in some persons.

Body Parts Involved: Blood vessels leading to the scalp and brain.

Symptoms: The nature of attacks varies between persons from time to time in the same person. Symptoms of classic migraine attack appear in the following sequence: ●Inability to see clearly, followed by seeing bright spots and zig-zag patterns. Visual disturbances may last several minutes or several hours, but they disappear once the headache begins ●Dull boring pain in the temple that spreads to the entire side of the head. Pain becomes intense and throbbing ●Nausea and vomiting ●Mental irritation.

Causes: Constriction, then dilation and inflammation of blood vessels that go to the scalp and brain. Vision disturbances occur when blood vessels narrow. Headache begins when they widen again. Attacks may be triggered by: ●Tension. Emotional problems are probably the most common reason for migraine attacks, but headache doesn’t necessarily coincide with emotional upset ●Menstruation ●Use of contraceptive pills ●Fatigue ●Consumption of alcohol or certain foods or smoking.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 1, 5, 8, 25, 27, 26, 28, 39.
Associate Points: 8, 7, 14, 15, 16, 23, 29, 33, 35, 37.

 

NECK PAIN: See cervical spondylosis.

 

PARALYSIS (Hemiplegia)
Hemiplegia means partial or complete paralysis of one side of the body.

Body Parts Involved: Brain.

Symptoms: Because of the anatomy of the brain and spinal cord, injury to one side of the brain affects the opposite side of the body. The following symptoms vary greatly between individuals: ●Weakness or paralysis of the arm and leg on the affected side ●Difficulty or inability to walk ●Difficulty or inability to make a strong fist or hold things properly ●Numbness of limbs of the affected side ●Drooling ●Difficulty in speaking, understanding or recognizing words ●Altered or lost sensation on the affected side ●Difficulty with self-feeding ●Urinary incontinence ●Blurred, double or decreased vision.

Causes: Brain injury in an area that controls one side of the body. Injury may result from: ●Stroke (the most common). Stroke may be caused by bleeding in the brain, or a blood clot or other obstruction of blood vessel to the brain due to high blood pressure or deposition of cholesterol in the blood vessels ●Brain tumor ●Head injury ●Diabetes.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 17, 24, 28, 39.
Associate Points: 3, 4, 23, 26, 36, 37.

 

PARKINSONISM (Parkinson’s disease)
It’s a disease of central nervous system in older adults characterized by gradual, progressive muscle rigidity, tremors and clumsiness.

Body Parts Involved: Area of the brain that regulates movement; muscles.

Symptoms: ●Tremor, especially when not moving ●General muscle stiffness and slowness ●Awkward or shuffling walk ●Stooped posture ●Loss of facial expression ●Inability to hold a pen properly or write neatly ●Swallowing difficulty.

Causes: Parkinson’s disease results from degeneration of the nerve cells present in a part of the brain called basal ganglia, which controls the smoothness of muscle movements. The nerve cells affected usually produce a neurotransmitter (a chemical that transmit nerve impulse) called dopamine, which acts with acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter, that fine-tune muscle control. In Parkinson’s disease, the level of dopamine is less in relation to acetylcholine, which adversely affects the muscles control. The exact cause that affects the normal secretion of dopamine is not clearly known, but the factors that may contribute are: ●Brain injury ●Adverse effects of some drugs ●Tumours ●Stress ●Aging ●Genetic factors.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 24, 28, 39.
Associate Points: 3, 4, 17, 23, 26, 37.

 

PEPTIC ULCER: See duodenal ulcer & stomach ulcer.

 

PILES: See haemorrhoids.

 

PROLAPSE INTERVERTEBRAL DISC: See Slip disc.

 

PROSTATE ENLARGEMENT
Enlargement of prostate (a gland surrounding the neck of the bladder and urethra in the male). The enlargement may obstruct the flow of urine from the bladder.

Body Parts Involved: Prostate gland; bladder; urethra.

Symptoms: ●Increased urinary urgency and frequency especially at night ●Burning on urination ●Weak urinary stream ●Straining and dribbling on urination ●Feeling that the bladder cannot be emptied completely ●Urine of abnormal odour ●Impotence (sometimes).

Causes: ●Overgrowth of the prostate due to hormonal changes that accompany aging ●Diminishing sex life with few or no ejaculations.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 11, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 1, 9, 23.

 

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA)
It’s a commonest form of chronic inflammatory arthritis characterized by joint disease that involves muscles, membrane lining of the joints and cartilage. In its classical form RA is symmetrical, destructive and deforming poly-arthritis affecting small and large peripheral joints.

Body Parts Involved: Joints, including cartilage, synovial membranes, muscles, and ligaments; blood vessels; heart; eyes.

Symptoms: Slow or sudden onset of: ●Redness, pain, warmth, swelling and tenderness in any or all active joints in the hands, wrists, elbows, shoulders, feet and ankles ●Muscle wasting ●Synovitis ●Ligament laxity ●Fibrosis ●Tendinitis ●Cartilage loss ●Bone erosion ●Morning stiffness of joints ●Nodules under the skin (sometimes).

Causes: ●Mostly auto-immune disorder ●hereditary (genetic).

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 17, 24, 28, 37, 39.
Associate Points: 3, 5, 23, 26.

 

SCIATICA
Sciatica is the pain in the buttock and down the back of the leg, occurring when the sciatic nerve is compressed or damaged.

Body Parts Involved: Sciatic nerve; the lumbar-sacral vertebrae; the intervertebral discs.

Symptoms: The pain may vary from mild to acute and from one state to another in the same patient. The pain may be on and off or continue as it is for a longer period. ●Pain radiating from the waist to the affected legs ●Pain could be shooting or diffused ●Pain may aggravate by movement, sneezing or coughing ●Tingling or numbness in the affected areas (waist and legs) ●Muscle weakness.

Causes: ●Prolapsed intervertebral disc ●Accident or physical injury ●Pregnancy (for a brief period) ●Injection into the buttock that may have been too close to sciatic nerve ●Tumour ●Heavy lifting ●Awkward postures ●Long driving ●Obesity ●Sedentary job ●Chronic back pain.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 8, 9, (11 to 15 & 24 in foot), 16, 17, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 19, 20, 23, 26, 39.

 

SHOULDER, FROZEN
Pain and stiffness in the shoulder joint that progresses to restriction of shoulder movement is termed as frozen shoulder. In this case, “frozen” does not relate to freezing temperatures.

Body Parts Involved: Shoulder tendons, bursa, joint capsule, muscles, blood vessels and nerves.

Symptoms: Early stages: ●Pain in the shoulder, often slight, that progresses to severe pain that interferes with sleep and normal activities ●Stiffness in the shoulder that prevents normal movement. Reduced movement increases stiffness ●Inability to raise the arm ●Tenderness over the affected part. Later stage: ●Pain in the arm or neck ●Inability to move the shoulder ●Intolerance shoulder pain

Causes: Minor shoulder injury or inflammation, such as bursitis or tendinitis, that worsens from lack of use. Adhesions (constriction bands of tissue) form with disuse in 7 to 10 days. Adhesions increase disuse. After 3 weeks of disuse, adhesions grow so severe that the joint cannot move ●Minor injury ●Muscles weakness ● People with diabetes are more susceptible to this condition.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 7, 9, 24, 28, 39.
Associate Points: 5, 8, 15, 16, 23, 26, 37.

 

SINUSITIS
Sinusitis is the inflammation of the para-nasal sinuses adjacent to the nose.

Body Parts Involved: Para-nasal sinuses.

Symptoms: Early stages: ●Nasal congestion with green-yellow (sometimes blood-tinged) discharge ●Feeling of pressure inside the head ●Eye pain ●Headache that is worse in the morning or when bending forward ●Cheek pain that may resemble to toothache ●Cough (sometimes) that is usually non-productive ●Disturbed sleep (sometimes) ●Fever (sometimes) Late stages: ●Complete blockage of the sinus openings, blocking the discharge and increasing pain ●Pain in the eyes ●Tender over the affected parts ●Change in the voice ●Heaviness of head ●Smoking, exposure to cold, damp weather and excessive nose blowing during upper respiratory infection makes the symptoms worse.

Causes: ●Viral infection ●Common cold ●Deviated nasal septum ●Nasal polyp’s ●Allergic rhinitis ●Swimming, especially jumping into the water without holding the nose ●Smoking.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 7, 16, 28, 34, 37, 39.
Associate Points: 1, 8, 15, 23, 26, 30, 35.

 

SLIP DISC (Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc)
It is the protrusion of one of the shock-absorbing pads that lie between the vertebrae of the spine.

Body Parts Involved: Intervertebral discs of the neck or lower spine (most common sites).

Symptoms: Lower back: ●Severe pain in the low back or back of leg, buttock or foot (sciatica). Pain usually affects one side and worsens with movement, coughing, sneezing, lifting or straining ●Weakness, numbness or muscular wasting of the affected leg ●Inability to bend forward ●Pain in the back and legs after walking for a while ●Back spasm. Neck: ●Pain in the neck, shoulder or in arm ●Pain worsens with the movement ●Weakness, numbness or muscular wasting of the affected arm ●Tingling sensation ●Burning sensation ●Stiff neck ●Difficulty in the movements of neck ●Tenderness in the affected areas.

Causes: The shock-absorbing intervertebral disc lying between the vertebrae (spine bones) consist of a strong outer covering of fibrous tissue that surrounds a soft gelatinous core. A prolapsed disc occurs when the gelatinous core pushes outward distorting the shape of the disc. If the outer coat gets torn and rupture then that condition in termed as prolapsed or slipped disc. When a disc prolapses, the surrounding tissues become inflamed and swollen. Then together with the disc, the tissues may press on a spinal nerve of the spinal cord, causing pain. Thus the causes of prolapsed disc may be: ●Weakening and rupture of the disc material, creating pressures on nearby spinal nerves ●Sudden injury or chronic stress, such as from constant lifting or obesity. Other causes that may contribute to rupture of discs are ●Weakening of abdominal muscles ●Sedentary job ●wrong posture ●Long drive ●Ligament injuries.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 8, 9, (11 to 15 & 24 in foot), 16, 17, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 19, 20, 23, 26, 39.

 

SPONDYLITIS, ANKOLYSING
It’s a chronic, progressive disease of the joints, accompanied by inflammation and stiffening. It is characterized by a “bent forward” posture caused by stiffening of the spine and support structures.

Body Parts Involved: Sacroiliac region; hip joints; lumbar; thoracic; and cervical spines.

Symptoms: Early Stages: – ●Recurrent episodes of low back pain with or without sciatica pain ●Morning stiffness. Later Stages: – ●Progressive worsening of symptoms. Pain often spreads from the back to the middle back or higher in the neck. Joints in the arms, legs, feet and hands are sometimes affected ●Anaemia ●Fatigue ●Muscle stiffness ●Weight loss.

Causes: Unknown, but it may be caused by genetic changes or auto-immune disorder.
Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 7, 8, 9, (11 to 15 & 24 in foot), 16, 17, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 23, 26, 39.

 

STOMACH ULCER (Gastric Peptic Ulcer / Gastric Ulcer)
It is a raw spot that develop in the stomach inner mucus lining.

Body Parts Involved: Stomach, including stomach lining.

Symptoms: Pain with the following characteristics: ●Burning, gnawing pain in the upper abdomen or the lower chest below the breastbone. The pain is often interpreted as indigestion, chest burn or hunger and may be relieved temporarily with milk, antacids or bland food ●Onset of pain is immediate after intake of meal ●Pain lasts 30 minutes to 3 hours. It may occur immediately after eating or hours later ● Pain comes and goes. Weeks of intermittent pain may alternate with short pain-free period’s ●Loss of appetite ●Weight loss ●Anaemia ●Occasional vomiting.

Causes: ●Combined effect of hydrochloric acid and pepsin ●Stress ●Improper diet, irregular mealtimes and skipped meals ●Smoking ●Excess alcohol consumption ●The presence of acid-resistant bacteria (Helicobacter pylori) in the stomach can lead to gastric ulcer as it damages the inner mucus layer of the stomach ●Use of certain drugs.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 16, 19, 22, 23, 27, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 8, 15, 25, 26, 29.

 

TENNIS ELBOW
Tennis elbow is the inflammation of outer side of the elbow.

Body Parts Involved: Elbow muscles, tendons and epicondyle (a bony prominence on the outside of the elbow where muscles of the forearm attach to the bone of the upper arm).

Symptoms: ●Pain and tenderness over the epicondyle ●Weak grip ●Pain when twisting the hand and arm, as in using a screwdriver or playing tennis.

Causes: Partial tear of the tendon and attached covering of the bone caused by: ●Chronic stress on the tissues that attach the forearm muscles to the elbow area ●Sudden strain on the forearm.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 7, 8, 9, 16, 24, 28, 37, 39.
Associate Points: 5, 15, 27, 29.

 

TONSILLITIS
It is the inflammation of the tonsils (clumps of lymphoid tissue at the back of throat). Tonsils are small at birth, enlarge during childhood, and become smaller at puberty. When not infected, tonsils help to prevent infection in the sinuses, mouth and throat from spreading to other body parts.

Body Parts Involved: Tonsils; pharynx.
Symptoms: ●Throat pain, both mild or severe ●Swallowing difficulty ●Chills and fever as high as 104° or more ●Swollen lymph glands on wither side of the jaw ●Headache ●Ear pain ●Cough (sometimes) ●Vomiting (sometimes).

Causes: Viral or bacterial infection of the tonsils. The symptoms may be triggered or aggravated by drinking of cold water, cold soft drinks, ice-cream, exposure to others in public places, cold and damp weather and unsanitary living conditions.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 6, 7, 16, 28, 37.
Associate Points: 8, 23, 34, 39.

 

VERITGO
Vertigo is a dizzy confused state of mind or a disordered state in which the individual or the individual’s surroundings seem to whirl dizzily and that is often combined with nausea and vomiting.

Body Parts Involved: Neck bone; Ears.

Symptoms: ●Head reeling ●Unpleasant sensations ●Nausea ●Vomiting ●Blurring of vision during the episode of vertigo.

Causes: ●Cervical spondylosis ●Infection in the vestibular apparatus of the ear ●Inner ear disorders ●Some drugs (like antibiotics) ●Excess consumption alcohol ●Food poisoning ●Heatstroke / sunstroke ●Deposition of minerals in the inner ear ●Tumours affecting the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain (rarely), ●A head injury or stroke.

Acu. Reflexology Treatment Points:
Target Points: 1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 31, 33, 26, 28.
Associate Points: 8, 15, 16, 27, 29, 37.