POINT # 25
P A N C R E A S
Location of Point: This Point No. 25 on the palm of the hand is located little above the spot which is marked in-between the tips of little and ring finger when one makes a gentle fist, or thus it is between the 4th and 5th metacarpal bones. In foot this point is located in-between the head of 4th and 5th metatarsals (the bone that lies on the hind of foot between the bones of toes and heel). The indications mentioned here with can be cured by putting pressure on this point.
The J-shaped Pancreas having both the exocrine and endocrine cells produces enzymes and hormones respectively. It lies in the upper abdomen behind the stomach, one end in the curve of the duodenum and the other end touching the spleen.
The pancreas has a series of ducts within it which allow digestive enzymes to flow into the interior of the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. The point at which the larger of these ducts enters the duodenum is called ampulla. The pancreas secretes enzymes through it into the duodenum, to aid the digestion of food.
Functions of Exocrine Pancreas:
The enzyme contained pancreatic juice produced by the exocrine part of pancreas is very much vital for the digestion of food. Insufficiency or absence of it may disrupt the process of digestion. The three enzymes of the pancreatic juice which assist in the digestion of food are:
• Trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen – helps in the digestion of protein.
• Pancreatic amylase – helps in the metabolism of carbohydrate.
• Lipase – helps in the metabolism of fat.
The endocrinal portion pancreas consists of clusters of hormones producing endocrine cells – islets of Langerhans, which produce several hormones. In an average pancreas there are about 2 millions of islets. An islet consists of several types of Cells. They are: 1. ‘B’ cells (beta), 2. ‘A’ cells (alpha), and 3. ‘D’ cells (delta). Other types of cells are also found.
1. ‘B’ (beta) cells constitute 60% and produce insulin (affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. It reduces blood glucose level)
2. ‘A’(alpha) cells, form 25% of the islet and secrete glucagon (raises blood glucose level)
3. ‘D’(delta) cells form 10% and secrete somatostatin (somatostatin slows down the secretion of both insulin and glucagon)
Functions of Insulin:
Insulin is the hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans and derives its name from the Latin word ‘insula’ which means an island. It was extracted from the pancreas by Banting and Best in 1921.
Insulin plays an important role in the metabolism of foods primarily carbohydrates. It acts towards the reduction of blood glucose level through variable following actions:
• Insulin promotes the entry of glucose into all cells of the body excepting the cells of liver, brain and RBCs.
• Immediately after a high carbohydrate meal, the glucose that is absorbed into the blood causes rapid secretion of insulin. The insulin in turn causes rapid uptake, storage and use of glucose by almost all tissues of the body, especially by the muscles, adipose tissue, and liver and thus reduces blood glucose level.
• Insulin promotes and enhances glycogenesis (glycogenesis = conversion of glucose to glycogen, for storage in liver and muscles) as a result blood sugar falls.
• If the muscles are not exercising during the period following a meal and yet the glucose is transported into the muscle cell in abundance, then most of glucose is stored in the form of muscle glycogen instead of being used for energy by the muscle.
• Insulin helps in storing absorbed glucose, after a meal, in the liver in the form of glycogen. Then between meals when food is not available and the blood glucose level begins to fall, the liver glycogen is again converted back into glucose, which is released back into the blood to keep the blood glucose concentration from falling too low.
Functions of Glucagon:
Glucagon is the other hormone produced by the ‘A’ cell (alpha) of the islets of Langerhans. Glucagon can be largely viewed as an anti-insulin hormone. Its major action is to raise blood sugar level. This is done by the following mechanisms:
• Glucagon enhances liver glycogenolysis (= glycogen of the liver is converted into glucose and released into the blood) as a result the blood glucose level is raised.
• It enhances Glyconeogenesis (= the formation of glucose from sources other (fat/protein) than carbohydrates) which also increases the blood glucose level.
It is viewed that insulin and glucagon act as a pair to control (stabilize) blood sugar level and carbohydrate metabolism.
High blood pressure
Low blood pressure
Fats around abdomen